||[Nov. 3rd, 2002|11:17 am]
十廻向 'Ten dedications (of merit).' A group of ten of the fifty-two stages of the path of bodhisattvahood in Mahaayaana Buddhism. Returning the fruits of all of one's practice to all sentient beings. These ten are: 1. 救護衆生離衆生相 jiuhuzhongshenglishengxiang; 'Dedication to saving all beings without any mental image of sentient beings.' The stage where one, while using the mind of no-aspects to save sentient beings, is still separated from the aspects of 'not-yet-saved beings.' 2. 不懷 buhuai; 'indestructible dedication.' The rank where one sees emptiness easily without analyzing all dharmas. 3. 等一切佛 ([wg] teng) dengiqiefu. 'Dedication equal to all Buddhas.' The stage where one continually broadly penetrates the teachings of all the Buddhas of the three worlds. 4. 至一切處 zhiiqiechu; 'dedication reaching all places.' The stage where one enters all Buddha-lands and practices cultivation together with all Buddhas. 5. 無盡功徳滅 wujingongdecang; 'dedication of inexhaustible treasuries of merit.' The stage of teaching people the meritorious dharma of the ever-present buddha-nature without exhaustion. 6. 隨順平等善根 suishunbingdengshangen. 'Dedication causing all roots of goodness to endure.' The stage of practicing the virtues of the middle path of no-outflow, and seeing that good and evil are not two. 7. 隨順等觀一切衆生 suishundengguaniqiezhongsheng. 'Dedication equally adapting to all sentient beings.' The stage where one sees that the good and evil actions of all sentient beings are not distinguished. 8. 眞如相 zhenruxiang. 'Dedication with the character of true thusness.' The stage where the bodhisattva, using the wisdom of the middle path, clarifies existence and non-existence, and sees that everything is the reality-realm. 9. 無縛解脱 wufujietuo; 'unbound liberated dedication.' The stage where one breaks off attachment with the view of all dharmas being the same, which he experiences through the wisdom of prajn~aapaaramitaa. 10. 法界無量 fajiewuliang. 'Boundless dedication equal to the cosmos.' The stage where the bodhisattva witnesses that all existences are the middle path without aspects.
空 (1) Empty, vain, nothing. (2) Sad, lonely. (3) Worthlessly, uselessly, in vain. (4) Broad, vast. (5) Sky, space. [Buddhism] (s`uunyataa, s`uunya); 'emptiness', 'non-existence', 'void'. The opposite of 有--the negation of existence. As the rejection by the Buddha of this 'emptiness' being simply the mistaken view of 'nothingness' 虚無, this basic Buddhist teaching of emptiness is the negation of the two mistaken views of the acceptance of the real existence of a self, and the understanding of an eternal nature of the compositional elements (法) that make up the world or the self. Therefore, it is an 'emptiness of self and dharmas'. Among Hinayanists the Satyasiddhi sect and in Mahaayaana teachings the Maadhyamika and others strongly emphasized this teaching. Among the sutras, the Prajn~aapaaramitaa sutras all especially emphasize this teaching. Among the various understandings of emptiness are 'analytical emptiness' and 'essential emptiness', as well as 'only emptiness' and 'not-only-emptiness' and so forth. As the teaching of emptiness is originally for the destruction of the attachment to false view, there is also the meaning of 'becoming empty'--to break attachment.
有 'Being', 'existence.' (1) To have, to possess. (2) There is, have, exist, occur, be located, happen, consist of (asti, sat). (3) Consist of; materialization, formation, completion. (4) Possession, ownership, property. (5) Some, one, a certain... [Buddhism] (1) The antithesis of 'nothingness' 無, or 'emptiness' 空 ([wg] k'ung). Existence, of which there are three types: real, provisional and mysterious (see 三種有). (2) Kumaarajiiva generally used the Chinese ideograph to translate the Sanskrit bhavati, but it was not generally used to translate the Tibetan equivalent yod pa (become), rather it was used for hgyur ba. The main meaning of bhavati is become, beget, make, form, etc. (3) Consist of; materialization, formation, completion (sam.bhava). (4) To consider that which is non-existent to be existent (samaaropa). (5) Possession, ownership, property. (6) Some, one, a certain... (7) Becoming--the tenth precondition among the twelve limbs of conditioned arising.
無 (1) Without, none, not; lacking. A negative. In translating from Sanskrit to Chinese, it is used for the a privative. Other Sanskrit terms are abhaava, avidyamaana, naasti, asat, asam.bhava. (1) Nonexistent, non-existence. (2) Caused to be non-existent. (3) Non-being, impossible. (4) Lacking reason or cause. (5) Pure human awareness, prior to experience or knowledge. This meaning is used especially by the Ch'an sect. (6) The "original non-being" from which being is produced in the Tao Te Ching. This meaning is explained in Buddhism when making the distinction between it and the Buddhist emptiness [空]. (7) 無 (wu) is also used as a function word in the way of the question mark at the end of a sentence. (8) In the Zen (Ch'an) sect, the word 無 is called the gate to enlightenment
法 (dharma). The word dharma is originally derived from the Sanskrit root dhr, with the meaning of "that which preserves or maintains", especially that which preserves or maintains human activity. The term has a wide range of meanings: (1) custom, habit, standard of behavior; (2) That which should be done; occupation, duty, obligation; (3) social order, social pattern; (4) goodness, good action, virtue; (5) truth, reality, true principle, law, (Skt. satya); (6) the basis of all worlds and realms; (7) religious duty; (8) the standard of the awareness of truth, the law; (9) teachings, explanation; (10) original essence, original nature, attribute, quality, characteristic quality, compositional element; (11) in logic, a predicate or verb object.
衆同分 (sattva-saamya, dharma, nikaaya-sabaagha) 'Commonality of sentient beings.' One of the 24 elements not concomitant with mind in Consciousness-only theory. 同分 means 'to resemble.' The fact that all human beings possess common characteristics is called 'human commonality.' The power of human beings to be human beings, and accordingly, to be distinguished from dogs, cats, etc. In the same way the commonality of dogs, cats, etc. is established. This is also true of vegetable and mineral life. The fact that a human being, in the middle of his life, cannot suddenly change into a dog or cat, is due to this power.